Pooling was a necessity to enable year-round radiocarbon analysis, in terms of the collection of enough carbon material, complete the laboratory work in a reasonable time, and stay within a reasonable budget (due to rather costly AMS analysis). A subset of 43 Alert samples (12 February 2014 and 15 April 2015) was pooled into nine composites, considering season and previously analyzed composites at Tiksi (to get two data points of identical start and stop dates). Samples were pooled to achieve 40 to 80 μg of EC, with volume normalized mass from each sample.

Multiple PM10 samples from Barrow were pooled for radiocarbon analysis. This pooling was accomplished considering season and source region. Samples from the same seasons and source regions (Russian Arctic, Canadian Arctic, Arctic Ocean, and interior Alaska) were composited (based on HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis). Samples were pooled to achieve 60 μg of EC, with volume normalized mass from each sample.

The 24 Zeppelin filters collected during 15 November 2012 and 30 December 2013 were pooled into 11 composites (7). None of the stable carbon data could be obtained; hence, only Δ14C data were reported. Samples were pooled to achieve 40 μg of EC, with volume normalized mass from each sample.

All Abisko samples were pooled into 17 composites/samples. Higher temporal resolution was chosen during Arctic Haze seasons (winter/spring), and lower resolution was chosen for the summer months, as previously described (7). The 17 Tiksi composites were pooled with emphasis on higher temporal resolution during the Arctic haze period, as previously described (17).

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