A homebuilt high-volume aerosol sampler was used at the Dr. Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory in Alert, Canada [83.2°N, 62.5°W, 210 m above sea level (masl)] to collect 44 samples between 4 February 2014 and 15 April 2015. The sampler was installed at a walk-up deck, about 4 m above the ground. Flow rate was approximately 1.4 m3 min−1 at standard temperature and pressure condition. Quartz filters (8 in × 10 in; QFF, Millipore, USA) were sampled continuously with sampling times of 7 days from December to April and 14 days from May to November (with one interruption from 30 April 2014 to 5 May 2014). A total of 10 field blanks (roughly one every month) were collected. After sampling, filters were stored (at room temperature ~20°C) in their sampling cartridges (inside sealed plastic bags) at the Alert station and shipped in aluminum boxes (containing five sampling cartridges each) to Stockholm, where they were transferred into precombusted Al foil and stored at −20°C. Air temperatures and pressures have been recorded and averaged over the integrated sampling time, and both were used for final flow rate and total air volume calculation.

A yearlong sampling campaign was conducted at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, 7.4 km northeast of the village of Utqiaġvik (formerly known as Barrow), AK (71.3°N, 156.6°W, 11 masl), on the North Slope of Alaska from 16 July 2012 to 4 June 2013. Samples were collected continuously with no exclusion based on local wind direction. The campaign was designed to monitor local and regional influences on ambient concentration and physical properties (i.e., sources from the village of Utqiaġvik were not excluded from the study). Particulate matter with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) was collected on precombusted QFF (20 cm × 25 cm, Tissuquartz Filters 2500 QAT-UP) using a Tisch high-volume PM10 sampler (TE-6070, Tisch Environmental, Cleves, OH). All samples were stored in aluminum foil packets and Ziploc storage bags in a freezer (−10°C) before and after sampling. Filter blanks were collected at least once a month or when sampler maintenance was conducted. All blanks (n = 15) were handled in the same manner as samples.

High-volume aerosol samples were collected on the roof of the Zeppelin Observatory, Svalbard, Norway (78.9°N, 11.9°E, 478 masl). Aerosol samples (PM10) were collected on QFF (8 in × 10 in; Millipore, USA) from 16 June 2012 to 30 December 2013, with two 3-day interruptions. A total of 33 filter samples and 11 blanks were collected. Early summer aerosol concentrations were very low; hence, for isotope analysis, a subset from 15 November 2012 to 30 December 2013 (410 days) was selected (table S7). Filters were kept in precombusted Al foil and stored at −20°C.

This temporary Abisko receptor site was located 10 km east of the village and research station of Abisko in northern Sweden (68.4°N, 19.1°E, 359 masl), as previously described (7). Briefly, samples were collected from 29 September 2011 to 27 March 2013 on precombusted QFF filters (8 in × 10 in; Millipore, USA) using a PM2.5 inlet high-volume sampler (model DH77, Digitel AG) with filter-changing intervals of 12 to 28 days, depending on the season and weather conditions.

The Tiksi sampling site, Polar Geocosmophysical Observatory (71.4°N, 128.5°E, 35 masl), is situated ~10 km southwest of the Tiksi settlement, has been in operation since 1958, and is run by permanent technical staff from the Russian Academy of Sciences, as previously described (17). Aerosol sampling of total suspended particles on precombusted QFF filters (8 in × 10 in; Millipore, USA) was performed continuously for ~24 months (16 April 2012 to 7 March 2014) with sample intervals of 15 to 25 days, depending on the weather conditions.

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