To confirm the measured visibility values extracted from data matched with the correct phase shift of x-rays, a forward simulation reproduced the lineout pattern across the elastic features. This numerical approach consisted of generating an initial intensity field of a Gaussian x-ray beam incident on-target, creating a phase map of identical matrix dimensions and introducing phase shifts at the spatial locations and strengths observed in the experiment. The square root of the intensity field was then multiplied by the phase map to create the initial electric field matrix. This electric field was decomposed into its spectral components via Fourier transform. Next, the initial electric field was multiplied by the free-space propagator to simulate propagating the beam downstream to the detector, and the magnitude of the resulting propagated electric field was taken to find the simulated intensity recorded on the detector. A lineout of the simulated intensity can be compared to a lineout from the experimental data, as demonstrated in Fig. 3A. Using this simulation methodology, multiple values of the phase shifts at each elastic wave location can be iterated to determine the closest lineout fit to experimental data.

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