For reprogramming experiment, we used the CytoTune-iPS 2.0 Sendai Reprogramming Kit (no. A16517; Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). The human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells were provided by Q. Jing (Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China). The HDF cells were maintained in fibroblast medium (no. 2301; ScienCell, Carlsbad, CA), and the medium was replaced every other day. The HDF cells were infected with sendai virus containing Yamanaka factors and cultured in fibroblast medium for 7 days. The cells were then detached using TrypLE reagent (no. 12605010; Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA), seeded onto Matrigel-coated 12-well plates (5 × 104 cells per well), and cultured in Essentia 8 medium (no. 05990; STEMCELL Technologies, Vancouver, Canada). Seven days later, the recombinant adenoviruses encoding human Bach1 gene (Ad-GFP-Bach1) or GFP control (Ad-GFP) was used to infect cells at a multiplicity of infection of 10. Thirty days after reprogramming, the cells were washed once with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and stained for the activity of AP with the Alkaline Phosphatase Kit (no. 86R-1KT; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The AP-positive colonies were counted under a microscope.

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