Statistical comparisons were performed with two-tailed unpaired t test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc Bonferroni test using SPSS (IBM) software, and each series of experiments was repeated at least three times. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. For all figures and supplementary figures, quantitative data are presented as means ± SD. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; NS, not significant by two-tailed unpaired t test unless specified otherwise. Adequate sample sizes of experiments were estimated on the basis of our pilot experiments and experience with similar measurements to ensure adequate power to detect a specified effect size. For animal analyses, at least three animals were assigned to each experimental group according to standard scientific conventions. We tried to reach a conclusion for each individual experiment, using as small a size of samples as possible. No data were excluded, whereas the investigators were not blinded to any group allocations, which were randomly performed for in vivo or in vitro experiments.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.

Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.