Calculation of electromagnetic fields
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Optical pulling at macroscopic distances
Sci Adv, Mar 29, 2019; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7814

All numerical calculations presented in this paper are full-wave electrodynamic calculations done by the commercial finite element package COMSOL Multiphysics, which provides an accurate solution to the Maxwell equations in the frequency domain. Two modules of the software were used, namely, the 2D axisymmetric radio frequency module and the 3D radio frequency module. For the transversely isotropic configuration, the axisymmetric module was adopted. By using symmetry, the axisymmetric model effectively reduced the simulation complexity from 3D to 2D. In addition to increased efficiency, it also allowed us to study much larger particles, up to tens of micrometers in diameter. When appropriate, the accuracy of the axisymmetric module was checked against the standard 3D radio frequency module and against the generalized Mie theory for spherical particles (69). In all cases, the agreement was remarkable. Nontransversely isotropic systems, such as the dielectric blocks illuminated by a Bessel beam, were treated by the standard 3D radio frequency module.

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