We assembled a phylogenetic tree for our study taxa using the supertree recently published by Ruta and co-workers (54). Following Ruta et al.’s work, we calibrated the tree branches using the “equal” method defined by Lloyd and colleagues (55, 56) to adjust zero-length and internal branches, as implemented in the package paleotree (57) for R. This method is the most conservative to time-calibrate a phylogeny: It makes few assumptions about divergence times and relies exclusively upon first appearance dates (54). Temporal ranges of taxa [first and last appearance date in million years (Ma)] follow those of Ruta et al. (54), the Paleobiological Database (https://paleobiodb.org/), and TimeTree (www.timetree.org) (tables S4 and S5). We constrained tree calibration by assigning minimum dates for known internal nodes (clades or splits) based on molecular inferences and fossil dates from the literature (54). The exact dates for first and last appearance of taxa and for internal nodes are available within source code included. Note that when required by the analysis, our phylogenetic tree was pruned to only include those taxa of interest.

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