Total RNA was extracted from cultured cells or the indicated tissues with TRIzol reagent according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Thermo Fisher Scientific Co., CA, USA). First-strand cDNA was synthesized with the PrimeScript RT-PCR Kit (Takara, Dalian, China). The expression of mRNA encoding for the indicated genes was quantified by qRT-PCR with the SYBR Premix ExTaq Kit (Takara) and was normalized to the expression of β-actin. qRT-PCR was performed with specific primers (table S1). The results were compared by the 2ΔΔCt method.

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