We examined the skeletal anatomy of pectoral and pelvic appendages in nine extant taxa. Six of them were recently described elsewhere (23): Polypterus senegalus Cuvier 1829, Latimeria chalumnae Smith 1939, Neoceratodus forsteri Krefft 1870, Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw 1789, Salamandra salamandra Linnaeus 1758, and Sphenodon punctatus Gray 1842. In addition, we built network models for Iguana iguana Linnaeus 1758, Didelphis virginiana Kerr 1792, and Mus musculus Linnaeus 1758 (see details in the Supplementary Materials). We selected these extant taxa because there were available dissection data and because they bracket the fins-to-limbs transition (i.e., rootward and crownward relative to Tetrapoda/Amniote).

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