All EEG recordings were performed on a healthy volunteer. PEDOT:PSS-coated Au electrodes were placed on the scalp of the volunteer on left frontopolar (FP1) and occipital (O1) positions. The gate (G) and source (S) of the IGT were connected to O1 and FP1 positions, respectively. During EEG recording, IGT operated at VD = −0.6 V and VG = 0.4 V. EEG signals were acquired at a sampling rate of 1 kHz with a band-pass filter of 0.1 to 500 Hz, using a custom board containing an RHD2164 die (Intan Technologies) and visualized in real time using RHD2000 Interface Software (Intan Technologies). The drain current was determined by measuring the voltage drop across a 500-ohm series resistor. Data were stored for off-line analysis with a 16-bit format, analyzed using MATLAB (MathWorks), and visualized using NeuroScope ( The healthy volunteer indicated epochs of voluntary eye closure using a switch synchronized to the EEG recording.

EEG signals were notch-filtered (55 to 65 Hz) before further processing, and epochs of eye closure were identified using the synchronized digital signal. Spectrograms were generated using wavelet transformation (Gabor). Cross-frequency coupling was computed using a Gabor wavelet and Gaussian window convolution with duration matched to frequency to generate a comodulogram. Correlation matrix was calculated using the magnitude of the wavelet components. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant after Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple comparisons.

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