The simulations were performed with the commercial finite element analysis solver COMSOL Multiphysics. The infinite systems were modeled by one period using Floquet periodic conditions. The simulation shown in Figs. 1E and 2E was calculated with impedance boundaries, defining the values according to impedances shown in Figs. 1D and 2D. The simulation of the proposed designs (see Figs. 1F and 2F) was calculated using sound hard boundary conditions. In these simulations, the illumination is a perfect plane wave implemented using background pressure field domain conditions.

For the simulations of the experiment, we used a finite number of periods and Gaussian beam illumination. The Gaussian beam propagating in y direction is expressed asEmbedded Image(12)where p0 is the beam amplitude, w0 is the spot radius, Embedded Image defines the spot size variation as a function of the distance from the beam waist, Embedded Image is the Rayleigh range, Embedded Image is the curvature radius, and Embedded Image is the phase change close to the beam waist. The boundaries of the metasurface were set as hard walls. The background medium was modeled as a semicircle with a radius of 1.2 m using plane wave radiation conditions. The excitation was implemented using background pressure field domain conditions. The wall of the metasurface was modeled using sound hard boundary conditions.

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