Extraction of capsid-associated DNA was described previously (38, 49). Equivalent amounts of cells or liver tissues were used to isolate capsid-associated viral DNA using the QIAamp MinElute Virus Spin Kit (Qiagen).

The quantification of capsid-associated DNA was performed using SYBR Green Master Mix (11201ES08-5, Yeasen Biotechnology) on Applied Biosystems 7500 Real-Time PCR System (49). The percentage of the copy number was measured as described previously (38).

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