BP flakes were mechanically exfoliated onto a 300-nm SiO2/Si substrate in the Ar glovebox, which has less than 0.1 ppm (parts per million) of O2 and H2O to preserve the flakes from deterioration. h-BN flakes were similarly exfoliated on the substrate. The thickness of flakes was confirmed with AFM (Park AFM). We used a dry transfer technique with polymer (polycarbonate) and polydimethylsiloxane stamp to fabricate h-BN/BP heterostructures in the Ar glovebox. Substrates were then coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) 950(A6) and exposed with an electron beam system with a dose of 450 μC/cm2 using an accelerating voltage of 30 kV. After developing in methyl isobutyl ketone for 1 min, reactive ion etching using a mixture of CHF3, Ar, and O2 at flows of 10, 5, and 2 sccm, respectively, and a radio frequency generator at 30 W for 3 to 6 min was subsequently used to shape the heterostructure into discs. After the etching process, PMMA was removed by acetone, rinsed with isopropyl alcohol, and dried with nitrogen.

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