Satellite SST data were obtained at 0.05° (~5 km) daily resolution from the CoralTemp product by NOAA Coral Reef Watch (NOAA Coral Reef Watch 2018). Time series of SST were acquired at each location of the roving-diver surveys or at the nearest neighboring satellite pixel near the coastal boundary. SST anomalies describe the variation in temperature from expected values at a given time of year and location and were determined using the Coral Reef Watch approach based on monthly climatologies (46). Where SST is warmer (cooler) than expected, the SST anomaly is positive (negative). For each survey, maximum values of SST and SST anomaly from several periods immediately prior were extracted (30, 60, 90, 180, and 360 days) for comparison with survey data. Jurisdictional (California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia) SST anomaly summaries for each year were calculated by spatially averaging 60-day-prior maximum values from survey locations for that year (Fig. 2). Jurisdictional SST and SST anomaly time series (Fig. 3 and fig. S3) were averaged across all survey locations.

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