H. pylori NCTC 11637 (cagA positive) (WT H. pylori) and cagA-knockout mutant H. pylori NCTC 11637 (ΔcagA) were grown in brain-heart infusion plates containing 10% rabbit blood at 37°C under microaerophilic conditions. For infecting mouse, bacteria were propagated in Brucella broth with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), with gentle shaking at 37°C under microaerobic conditions. After culture for 1 day, live bacteria were collected and adjusted to 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The mice were fasted overnight and orogastrically inoculated twice at a 1-day interval with 3 × 108 CFU of bacteria. H. pylori infection status and H. pylori–induced gastritis in murine experiments were confirmed using real-time PCR of H. pylori 16S rDNA, urease biopsy assays, Warthin-Starry staining and immunohistochemical staining for H. pylori, and evaluation of inflammation by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining (8).

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