The gastric biopsy specimens and blood were collected from 96 H. pylori–infected and 42 uninfected patients who underwent upper esophagogastroduodenoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms at XinQiao Hospital (table S1). H. pylori infection was determined by [14C] urea breath test and rapid urease test of biopsy specimens taken from the antrum and subsequently conformed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and serology test for specific anti–H. pylori Abs (8). For isolation of human primary gastric epithelial cells, fresh nontumor gastric tissues (at least 5-cm distant from the tumor site) were obtained from patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgical resection and were determined as H. pylori–negative individuals, as described above, at the Southwest Hospital. None of these patients had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy before sampling. Individuals with atrophic gastritis, hypochlorhydria, antibiotic treatment, autoimmune disease, infectious diseases, and multiprimary cancer were excluded. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of XinQiao Hospital and Southwest Hospital of Third Military Medical University. The written informed consent was obtained from each individual.

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