All test structures were fabricated with LAPμSL. The LAPμSL system is a custom, top-down, layer-by-layer 3D printing system that projects dynamic ultraviolet light patterns onto a photocurable resin. The photocurable resin solidifies where the light pattern is projected, and then an elevator lowers the substrate below the resin surface and the next pattern is projected. This process continues in a layer-by-layer fashion until a 3D structure is fabricated from a stack of 2D images. More information can be found on this process in the article published by Zheng et al. (15). Cuboctahedron unit cells and lattice computer-aided design files (.stl) were created in NetFabb. The cuboctahedron unit cells were designed as 10 mm by 10 mm by 10 mm cubes composed of tubular struts with 1.1-mm outer diameter, 1.0-mm channel inner diameter, and 50-μm-thick walls. All structures were fabricated out of 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA) with 1.2 weight % (wt %) photoabsorber [phenylbis(2,4,6-trimethylbensoyl)phosphine oxide] and 2 wt % photoinitator (Sudan 1). All chemicals were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. To prepare the resin formulation, HDDA, photoabsorber, and photoinitiator were mixed and stirred overnight. The LAPμSL build chamber was purged with inert gas to create a low-oxygen atmosphere that would not inhibit the free radical polymerization process. After printing, ethanol was used to clean the samples and remove the excess uncured resin. After cleaning, the samples were imaged with a tabletop scanning electron microscope (Phenom Pro, Phenom World), and important dimensions were measured.

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