Rheology measurements were performed on a TA Instruments DHR-1 rotational rheometer with an MR measurement accessory, using a 20-mm parallel plate setup. The sample thickness (spacing between the plates) was set to 500 μm. The magnetic field was applied through an integrated electromagnetic coil located below the sample. The coil delivers a homogeneous magnetic field normal to the plate surface, and real-time measurements and closed loop control of the sample field were achieved by inserting a Hall probe in a groove below the bottom sample plate and reading the output from the software interface. The temperature of the sample was kept at 25°C using an external thermostat to circulate water through the cooling jacket of the cell. Ink viscosities were measured at shear rates ranging from 0.01 to 100 s−1 at magnetic field strengths up to 1.0 T in 0.1-T increments. Field response measurements were performed at a low shear rate (0.1 s−1) by turning the field on and off at desired intensities and time intervals while measuring the corresponding viscosity response.

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