Images were acquired as a Z-series stack using a Nikon confocal microscope. For Aβ plaque–associated microglia quantification, Iba1-positive cells within a 20-μm range of the plaques were manually counted. Plaques were grouped into small (<250 μm2), medium (250 to 600 μm2), and large (>600 μm2) sizes. At least 100 plaques per group and over 30 plaques of each size were analyzed. Microglial CD68+ phagosome area was calculated as the Iba1 and CD68 double-positive area divided by the Iba1-positive area. For quantification of the Aβ internalization ratio, the area of Aβ-internalized microglia (Aβ+Iba1+) was normalized to the Aβ-positive area. The calculating performance was conducted using ImageJ Pro Plus software. All the images were captured and analyzed blindly using coded slides.

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