Electrophysiology was performed as described previously (42). Briefly, brains from 6-month-old mice (mice were treated with or without NaR from 4 months old) were rapidly removed and placed in ice-cold oxygenated dissection buffer (213 mM sucrose, 10 mM glucose, 3 mM KCl, 1.0 mM NaH2PO4, 0.5 mM CaCl2, 10 mM MgCl2, and 25 mM NaHCO3). Brain slices were cut into 350 μm using a vibratome (Leica VT1200S, Leica, Solms, Germany) and then transferred to the incubation chamber containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF; 10 mM glucose,125 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 1.2 mM NaH2PO4, 2.6 mM CaCl2, 1.3 mM MgCl2, and 26 mM NaHCO3). The slices were incubated at 30°C for 20 min and at room temperature for 40 min before transferring to the recording chamber. The ACSF was perfused at 1 ml/min. The slices were visualized with a ×40 water immersion lens, differential interference contrast optics, and a charge-coupled device camera. Patch pipettes were pulled from borosilicate glass capillary tubes using a PC-10 pipette puller. For recording, stimulation pluses were delivered using a concentric bipolar electrode, and the excitatory postsynaptic potentials were recorded by a glass pipette (4 to 7 MΩ) filled with ACSF. The LTP was induced by a theta-burst stimulation protocol after recording a 20-min baseline.

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