The effect of NaR on spatial learning and memory performance of mice was tested by the Morris water maze. Briefly, the mice were allowed to habituate the water maze (110 cm in diameter) 1 day before the experiment. The maze filled with opacified water was drained every day, and the temperature of the water was maintained at 19° to 22°C. During the training period, the mice were allowed to freely swim for 60 s to find the platform (10 cm in diameter), which was fixed 1 cm beneath the water surface. Mice that failed to find the platform were guided to it and allowed to stay for 30 s. The mice were trained twice per day, and the data presented are the average of the two trials. Twenty-four hours after the last training trail, the platform was removed and the mice were tested for memory retention in a probe trial. The swimming activity of each mouse was monitored using a video camera mounted overhead and was automatically recorded via ANY-maze behavioral tracking software (Stoelting, Wood Dale, IL, USA).

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