For in vivo NaR treatment, 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice or 4-month-old 5XFAD mice were fed with NaR-containing water, and the treatment continued until mice were euthanized (APP/PS1 mice were 13 months and 5XFAD mice were 8 months, except those specific explanation). NaR was administered in drinking water at a final concentration of 0.25 mg/ml. The desired intake of NaR was approximately 18 to 25 mg/kg of body weight per day, which was similar with the troxerutin used in humans of about 18 mg/kg of body weight per day. For in vitro treatment, NaR stock solution was filtered with a 0.22-μm membrane and diluted in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to the designed concentration.

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