SEM images were measured with a JSM-7500 SEM and an attached energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption tests were executed with an automated surface area and a pore size analyzer (BET, QUADRASORB evo). The phase composition was carried out at room temperature using XRD with Cu Kα radiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS ESCALAB 250Xi, USA) tests were conducted to analyze chemical states of samples.

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