Near-surface temperature estimates were based on planktic foraminifera census counts and the maximum likelihood transfer function technique (14). These near-surface temperature estimates were based on a calibration using modern temperatures at 10 m water depth during summer (July-August-September), but trends in its temporal variability might be representative for several tens of meters of the upper ocean (41). Stable oxygen and carbon isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) were measured on planktic, near-surface dwelling Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral) and epibenthic (or shallow infaunal) Cassidulina neoteretis. More methodological details are given by Dokken et al. (14).

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