To estimate feeding-deterrence dose, we used Probit analysis on the log10-transformed feeding counts data using Statistical Analysis Software, version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., NC, USA). The feeding response variable obtained from mosquito counts data followed a binomial rather than a normal distribution. For this kind of nonnormal dataset, a generalized linear model (GLM) is appropriate. The Probit model is one kind of GLM that is used for analyses related to a dose-dependent variable. Data were log10-transformed because of the wide range of concentration values (0.01 to 1) investigated. Feeding-deterrent activity (Tables 1 and 2) was expressed as a dose (in mg/cm2) of the compound (bacterial or DEET or picaridin) applied to cloth that resulted in a 50 or 90% inhibition in mosquito feeding rate similarly as described previously (24). Relative efficacy (RE90) of the deterrent activity was derived by dividing a dose that results in 90% feeding-deterrence of DEET to that of the picaridin and Xbu Peak#3, respectively. Least-squares estimation (32) was conducted to compare differences among feeding-deterrent activity between the three compounds based on adjusted P values (Table 2). P values in Fig. 2 were calculated using Fisher’s exact test using Stata statistical software (Stata Statistical Software: Release 15, StataCorp LLC, College Station, TX).

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