The cyclic stretching tests involved loading the harvester device onto a stretching stage and then uniaxially stretching and releasing between 0 and 60% at a strain rate of 0.013/s. The vertical compression tests involved compression up to 40% applied by carefully sandwiching the device between two stiff plates and displacing the top plate using a piezoelectric stage (PI-USA, Waltham, MA). The total compression was estimated on the basis of the initial nominal coil diameter of 660 μm. Applying force through a steel spherical probe to the cover glass base (see fig. S7) ensured that the sandwiching plates remained in a parallel configuration. In addition, force measurements and side-view monitoring confirmed the uniform loading on multiple coils. Force was measured through the displacement of a 4-bar flexure monitored by capacitive sensors (Lion Precision, Oakdale, MN). The transducer stiffness was ≈ 1020 N/m, much stiffer than the out-of-plane stiffness of the devices themselves; the flexure displacement was added to the prescribed displacement for vertical compression to reach targeted values.

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