Transport properties of the doped silicon films were characterized at room temperature. Electrical conductivity and Hall measurements used the van der Pauw method with Mo probes. A 2-T electromagnet generated the magnetic field. Measurements of electrical conductivity used an in-line four-point Os probe setup to yield results consistent with those from the van der Pauw method. The in-plane Seebeck coefficient of the doped silicon film was measured using a scanning probe setup (43) with a maximum temperature difference of ≈ 8 K. The thermoelectric response of the coil harvester was measured by placing the device on a Cu block that was heated using a film heater attached to the bottom side of the block. A type K thermocouple was attached to the bottom of the harvester substrate, and the film heater was PID controlled to maintain the harvester bottom temperature at 40°C. Room temperature was measured using another type K thermocouple placed in air near the harvester. The entire setup was built inside a probe station enclosed in a dark box. Electrodes were probed using W needles. The output voltage and current were measured at varied load resistances. To achieve the equivalent effect of switching the load resistance, a source measurement unit (Keithley 2400) was used under the current-scanning mode (see also fig. S9).

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