Sulfitobacter D7 were grown overnight in 1/2 YTSS at 28°C. Bacteria were washed three times in ASW (68) by centrifugation (10,000g, 1 min). Media were inoculated with 104 bacteria ml−1. CM were obtained from monocultures of E. huxleyi strains by SVDF (66). This method was chosen to prevent lysis of algal cells during the procedure and release of intracellular components. Following SVDF, media were filtered through 0.22-μm syringe filters. In the experiment presented in Fig. 4B, bacterial growth was followed for 24 hours. Minimal medium (MM) was based on ASW supplemented with basal medium (-tris) (containing essential nutrients) (69) and vitamin mix (70). In the experiment presented in table S1, the MM was supplemented with glycerol (1 g liter−1) and 70 μM DMSP [synthesized according to Steinke et al. (26)]. Bacterial growth, DMSPd, and VOSC levels were measured at t = 0 hours and t = 24 hours. In the experiment presented in fig. S8, the MM was supplemented with glycerol (0.01 g liter−1), 0.5 mM NaNO3, metal mix of k/2 medium (64), and different concentrations of DMSP. Bacterial growth was measured at t = 16 hours.

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