Samples were collected by small-volume gravity drip filtration (SVDF) (see full description in the following section) (66) and quickly diluted (1:10 in DDW) in a gas-tight vial. DMS, MeSH, and DMDS levels were determined using an Eclipse 4660 Purge-and-Trap Sample Concentrator system equipped with an Autosampler (OI Analytical). Separation and detection were done using GC-FPD (HP 5890) equipped with an Rt-XL sulfur column (Restek). The GC oven temperature program was 100°C for 1 min, followed by a 70°C min−1 ramp to a final temperature of 240°C with a 7-min hold time. All measurements were compared to standards (Sigma-Aldrich; fig. S5). For calibration curves, DMS and DMDS were diluted in DDW to known concentrations. For MeSH standard, we used MeSNa+ dissolved in DDW and added HCl in 1:1 ratio by injection through the septa of the vials. We could not quantify MeSH since part of it was oxidized to DMDS during the procedure (fig. S5C). Therefore, MeSH abundance is presented as the square root of the area of the peak corresponding to MeSH. No VOSCs were present in blank (DDW) samples.

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