Waters were collected from 61.5° to 61.87°N/33.5° to 34.1°W in June to July 2012, during the NA-VICE (KN207-03), aboard the R/V Knorr (www.bco-dmo.org/project/2136). Samples were obtained from five to six depths using a Sea-Bird SBE 911plus CTD carrying 10-liter Niskin bottles. Biomass from 1 to 2 liters of seawater was prefiltered through a 200-μm mesh, collected on 0.8-μm polycarbonate filters (Millipore), flash frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80°C until further processing. Copepods were collected from surface waters (0 to 5 m) using 100-μm mesh nets on 29 June (57.7°N/32.2°W) and 11 July (61.9°N/33.7°W), as described by Frada et al. (38). Single copepods were thoroughly washed with clean artificial seawater (ASW) and kept at 4°C. Between 2 weeks and 1 month later, single copepod individuals were homogenized with a sterile pestle and inoculated into 2 ml of various E. huxleyi strains growing exponentially (38). Lysis of E. huxleyi strain NCMA379 was observed within 1 week. The supernatant of the culture lysate was passed through a 0.45-μm filter and reinoculated into E. huxleyi 379, resulting in the collapse of the culture. The addition of penicillin and streptomycin (20 U ml−1 and 20 μg ml−1, respectively) abolished culture lysis, indicating the presence of bacterial pathogens (fig. S1A). A suspension (<0.45 μm) of the culture lysate (CAM) was kept at 4°C for further analyses.

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