Bare Li metal was cut into 1-cm2 disks by a punch machine (MTI Corporation). Symmetrical MTI type-2032 coin cells were constructed with two identical electrodes inside an Mbraun MB-200B argon-filled glove box; 1 M Li hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in cosolvent of ethylene (EC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) (1:1 vol %) was used as the electrolyte. For high capacity symmetric cycling, 10% FEC and 1% VC were added into the above electrolyte. Symmetric cells were first stripped 32 mAh/cm2 of Li from one side. Then, this cell was dissembled, and the stripped side was paired with a piece of fresh electrode to form a new cell. Then, this cell was subjected to high capacity cycling. A fixed amount (200 μl) of electrolyte was used in each coin cell to standardize the measurement. Full cells (MTI type-2032) were fabricated with control or composite Li electrodes as the anode and LCO as the cathode. To prepare LCO electrodes, LCO, super-P acetylene black conducting agent, and poly-(vinylidene difluoride) binder were mixed at a weight ratio of 90:5:5 in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). The mixture was stirred to form a homogeneous slurry. The as-made slurry was pasted on aluminum foil with a total areal capacity of ~0.6 mAh/cm2. The slurry-coated foil was dried in a vacuum oven at 80°C overnight. Battery testing was performed with a 96-channel battery tester (Arbin Instruments). Electrochemical impedance was measured over the frequency from 0.1 Hz to 200 kHz on an electrochemical workstation (BioLogic Science Instruments, VMP3) at room temperature.

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