We used half-hourly temperature, VPD, SM, GPP, TER, and NEP data from the FLUXNET2015 Dataset (http://fluxnet.fluxdata.org/data/fluxnet2015-dataset/). SM was measured as volumetric soil water content (percentage) at a shallow depth (varying across sites) because deep SM was measured at only limited sites (<30). These data were processed following a consistent and uniform processing pipeline. We used temperature, VPD, and SM that were gap-filled using the marginal distribution method (41). NEP was obtained using a variable friction velocity (u*) threshold for each year, with references selected on the basis of model efficiency, and was partitioned into GPP and TER following the nighttime partitioning method (41).

We selected 66 sites (529 site years) with data covering no less than 3 years (table S1). Daytime half-hourly data (7:00 a.m. to 19:00 pm) in the warm season were aggregated to daily values. The warm season was defined as days when running 7-day mean temperatures were higher than 60th percentile of daily temperature for the site. Across the 529 site years, 139 ± 25 days were defined as warm season per year. At each site, GPP anomaly was calculated as the difference of daily GPP and the mean daily GPP in the warm season, and the same method was used to calculate the anomalies of TER and NEP.

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