Recovered ancient DNA sequences were authenticated using a number of methods. First, DNA damage patterns were estimated for each sample using mapDamage software (51). Samples showed a mean fragment length of 49.2 to 97.4 base pairs, with higher fragment lengths observed in the better-preserved hair samples. All samples exhibited damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA, with elevated levels of cytosine to thymine misincorporations in the 5′ end of fragments and guanine to adenine misincorporations in the 3′ end (52) (table S2).

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