All preprocessing steps were performed using the TopSpin 3.1 Bruker software (Bruker BioSpin, Karlsruhe, Germany). Spectra were aligned to the TSP signal at 0 ppm and phase-corrected. A five-order polynomial was systematically applied for baseline correction.

All spectra from 4.678 to 0.60 ppm were divided into intervals or buckets equal to 10−3 ppm using the AMIX software (Bruker). Each bucket was normalized to total spectrum amplitude. Because this procedure can mask minor peak variations when very intense peaks are present in the spectra, e.g., lipid peaks (L2 peak; Fig. 4A), we also performed bucketing on a reduced spectral region starting from 1.825 ppm (Fig. 4A, into brackets). Resonance assignment was performed as previously described [for metabolites: (74, 75); for lipids: (76, 77)].

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