Animals. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 to 220 g on arrival, 280 to 300 g at the time of experiments) and adult male Swiss mice (18 to 20 g on arrival, 22 to 25 g at the time of experiments) were purchased from JANVIER LABS (France) for algesimetry tests and biodistribution, respectively. They were housed in a standard controlled environment (22° ± 1°C, 60% relative humidity, 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle, lights on at 8:00 a.m.) with food and water available ad libitum, without any handling for at least 1 week before being used for experiments. In all cases, experiments were performed in conformity with the guidelines of the Committee for Research and Ethical Issues of the International Association for the Study of Pain (37) and approved by the Animal Care Committee of the University Paris-Sud in accordance with the principles of laboratory animal care and the European legislation 2010/63/EU. All efforts were made to reduce animal numbers and minimize their suffering, as defined in the specific agreement (registered under no. 7493-2016102520355414).

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