All the chemicals used were of analytical grade. Squalene (SQ), diglycolic anhydride, ethyl chloroformate, chloromethyl chlorosulfate, ammonium acetate, n-Bu4NHSO4, TES, and triethylamine (TEA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (France). Pd-C was obtained from Alfa Aesar (France). DiD and DiR were purchased, respectively, from PromoKine (Germany) and Interchim (France). Roti-Histofix 4% (formaldehyde) was provided by Roth (Germany).

All the drugs used were of analytical grade. Morphine sulfate salt pentahydrate, λ-carrageenan, naloxone hydrochloride (Nal, μ, δ, and κ opioid receptors antagonist), and naloxone methiodide (Nal-M, a nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist that does not cross the BBB) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France). Ketamine and xylazine were purchased from Centravet (Maisons-Alfort, France). LENK and Alloc-LENK were purchased from Ontores Biotechnologies (Zhejiang, China).

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