We performed a copy number variation analysis using CNVcaller (59) on the Rio Uncallane ancient population (an agriculture-based culture, pre-European contact), using USR1 as an outgroup (an 11,500-year-old ancient individual from Alaska found to be ancestral to Native American populations). We found no evidence of AMY1 high copy number in the Rio Uncallane, which may suggest a different evolutionary path for starch digestion in the Andes when compared to Europeans. Furthermore, we only found AMY1C to have two copies, while the other AMY1 genes showed zero copies. Previous studies, focusing on European populations, found a range of 2 to 18 copies, with an average of six copies per person [see (60) and references therein].

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