First-trimester elective termination tissue samples were obtained either via manual vacuum aspiration or dilation and curettage and temporarily floated in cold water. Gestational sac, chorionic villi, decidua, and blood clots were identified microscopically. The chorionic villi and decidua were separated using forceps and scissors and then transported to the laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) maintained at 37°C. For cell dissociation, 200 μl of freshly prepared dissociation solution composed of Liberase TL (2 mg/ml; Sigma-Aldrich) and 1800 μl of PBS were added to 0.1 to 0.3 g of tissue samples and incubated at 37°C for 15 min. The tissue was then manually disaggregated using a 2-ml syringe carrying a 16-gauge needle and pulling up and down the solution gently for 10 times, followed by two further rounds of needle aspiration in 15-min intervals now using an 18-gauge needle. Thereafter, 2 ml of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was added, and cells were passed through a Falcon 40-μm cell strainer (#352340, Corning) and collected by centrifugation at 300g for 5 min. Cells were washed once and resuspended in 100 μl of freshly prepared PBS–bovine serum albumin (BSA) (1× PBS and 0.04% BSA). Cell viability was assessed using Trypan blue (#1450013, Bio-Rad) exclusion method on a TC20 automated cell counter (Bio-Rad). Placenta_23 villi were processed on both Drop-seq and 10x platforms as the sample yielded enough cells. For Placenta_22 decidua, we processed two different tissue samples (ID: P2D_DS and P5D_DS) from the same individual.

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