Films were placed in sterile chambers containing 1 ml of saline (pH 7) warmed to 37°C. Buffers in each chamber were stirred (60 rpm), and 10 μl of samples was collected every 5 min for a period of 2 hours. Equal amounts of blank buffer were added to each chamber after sampling to maintain a constant volume. Samples were also taken of virus containing liquid film formulations that did not undergo drying and of virus in PBS alone, which were also stirred at 37°C. Results from these controls were used to normalize data for changes in titer due to temperature, physical agitation, and formulation effects.

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