Course grades were obtained from university records for all students (N = 15,466) in all courses taught by the faculty members in our sample for seven semesters (2 years) preceding the faculty survey. Grades were provided on a 4.0 scale (A/A+ = 4.0, A− = 3.7, B+ = 3.3, B = 3.0, B− = 2.7, C+ = 2.3, C = 2.0, C− = 1.7, D+ = 1.3, D = 1.0, D− = 0.7, F = 0.0).

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