University records provided students’ gender, race/ethnicity, first-generation status, and SAT scores for all students (N = 15,466; 46.4% women) enrolled in all of the courses (n = 634) taught by the STEM faculty respondents over seven academic terms. Black, Hispanic, Native American/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Island students were categorized as underrepresented minority (URM; n = 1685; 10.9%). White and Asian students were categorized as the majority group (n = 13,781, 89.1%). Students who did not provide the university with their race/ethnicity or were designated as having “two or more races” were excluded from analysis (n = 3271). Students were categorized as first generation if neither parent/guardian had obtained a 4-year college degree (n = 2255; 14.6%). If a student took the ACT instead of the SAT, then their ACT composite was converted to a SAT score. Students who did not provide the university with a SAT or ACT score were excluded from analysis (n = 440).

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