The SO42−-pretreated TiO2 supports were prepared by the wet impregnation method. The (NH4)2SO4 was dissolved in distilled water before TiO2 was added to the solution. The mixture was agitated for 1 hour, and then the moisture was evaporated at 60°C using a rotary vacuum evaporator before drying overnight at 100°C. The mixture was calcined in air for 3 hours at 300°C. The resulting samples were labeled as xSTi, where x is the loading amount of SO42−. 1V/xSTi catalysts were prepared by the wet impregnation method using ammonium metavanadate (1.0 wt % vanadium pentoxide) and calcined xSTi and were finally calcined in air for 3 hours at 500°C.

Before the NH3-SCR activity tests, the catalysts were pressed, crushed, and sieved to 40 to 60 mesh. The activity tests were carried out in a fixed-bed quartz flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The reaction conditions were controlled as follows: 500 ppm NO, 500 ppm NH3, 5 volume percent (vol %) O2, 100 ppm SO2 (when used), 10 vol % H2O (when used), and N2 balance. Under ambient conditions, the total flow rate was 500 ml/min, and the GHSV was 200,000 hour−1. The effluent gas, including NO, NH3, NO2, and N2O, was continuously analyzed by a Thermo Antaris IGS FTIR gas analyzer equipped with a heated, low-volume, multiple-path gas cell (2 m).

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