Details on main BuzzFeed-based list

Our BuzzFeed-based list began with 30 domains identified by that site’s reporting as purveyors of intentionally false election-related stories generating the most Facebook engagement. To do this, the journalists, led by Craig Silverman, used keywords and existing lists combined with the analytics service BuzzSumo. To ensure that our analysis stayed clear of websites that could be construed as partisan or hyperpartisan (rather than intentionally or systematically factually inaccurate), we additionally filtered out domains identified as hard news by a supervised learning classifier developed by Bakshy et al. (23). The nearly 500 hard news domains encompass a wide range of news and opinion websites, both mainstream and niche. The classifier was trained on the text features of roughly 7 million web pages shared on Facebook over a 6-month period by U.S. users, with training labels for hard and soft news generated using bootstrapped keyword searches on the URLs. Once matches to this list of hard news domains were removed (for example,, we were left with 21 domains, shown below.






















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