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The silicene layers were fabricated by the deposition of silicon atoms on the Ag(111) substrate from a heated silicon wafer in a preparation chamber attached to an in situ STM system under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV; <1 × 10−10 torr). A clean Ag(111) substrate was prepared by argon ion sputtering and subsequently annealed at 820 K for several cycles. The deposition flux of Si was 0.1 monolayer per minute. The temperature of the Ag(111) substrate was kept at 470 K during deposition. The STM and STS measurements were carried out using a low-temperature UHV STM system (STM1500, Unisoku Co.) in UHV at 77 K. The dI/dV spectroscopy was acquired by switching off the feedback loop and keeping a constant tip-sample distance. The modulation amplitude of 10 mV at 613 Hz was applied, and the corresponding changes in current were measured using a standard lock-in technique.

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