All statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism. Experiments were performed at least three times from independent intestines with technical replicates performed from independent Transwells (a total of 36 small intestines were used in this study) as indicated in the figure legends or as detailed here in the text. Data are presented as means ± SD. A Student’s t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), or two-way ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance, as described in figure legends. Parametric tests were applied when data were distributed normally based on D’Agostino-Pearson analyses. If data were not normally distributed (based on D’Agostino-Pearson analyses), then nonparametric tests were applied. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant, with specific P values noted in the figure legends.

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