The topology and node ages of the phylogenetic hypothesis were based on the consensus of relationships within Lepidoptera summarized by Mitter et al. (63), with the relationships between families being largely derived from Kawahara and Breinholt (64), and within butterflies from Heikkilä et al. (65). These external estimates of evolutionary relationships (fig. S8) and divergence times were used (table S3), as they were far more robust given their density of taxonomic sampling and used fossil calibrations than any analysis of our limited taxon set.

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