Chromosomal fusions and fissions were reconstructed across the family Pieridae by placing previously published karyotype studies of haploid chromosomal counts into their evolutionary context. There are approximately 1000 species in the 85 recognized genera of Pieridae, and we recently reconstructed a robust fossil-calibrated chronogram for this family at the genus level (25, 26). We placed the published chromosomal counts for 201 species (6, 61) on this time-calibrated phylogeny, using the maximal reported haploid chromosomal count per species when more than one was recorded, with ancestral chromosomal reconstructions for chromosome count, treated as a continuous character, using the contMap function of the phytools R package (62). For instances where there was more than one species per genus, all species per genus were treated as a polytomy 5 million years old. This approach allowed us to incorporate the extensive within-genus data that exist in the literature, along with the genus-level and high time-calibrated phylogenetic information.

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