CuPc-Abs-MGT nanoprobes were synthesized by immobilized PD-L1 Abs and CuPc on the MGT surface. Briefly, 10 mg of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) was added into 5 ml of MGT solution in water and stirred for 1 hour. Then, 5 mg of N-hydroxysuccinimide and 20 mg of PD-L1 Abs were added to the solution containing MGT and EDC. After reacting with Abs for 2 hours, nanoprobes were separated with centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 10 min. The precipitate was then transferred into 10 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) [0.1 M (pH 7.4)], and 100 μl of CuPc solution (10 mM) was mixed with Abs-modified MGT solution and shaken for 1 hour. The final precipitate was collected through centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 10 min.

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