Typically, MT was synthesized through the same method reported by Zhao and colleagues. Fe3O4 NPs were dispersed in 20 ml of absolute ethanol and mixed with 60 μl of ammonia solution (28%). Then, the mixture was subjected to ultrasound for 15 min. After that, the solution was immersed into a 45°C water bath, and 0.15 ml of TBOT was added dropwise to the mixture within 5 min. Next, the reaction proceeded for 24 hours with continuous mechanical stirring. The products were washed three times with water and ethanol and dispersed in ethanol. The solution was transferred into a crucible and dried at 100°C overnight. The powder was then calcined at 500°C in air for 2 hours. After that, and using the same method as above, PDDA was used to change the surface charge of MT from negative to positive. Last, the GO and MT solutions were mixed together and subjected to ultrasound for 15 min to form the MTG NPs.

Besides, cMGT was synthesized by a similar process. Typically, MG was dispersed in a mixture of 25 ml of ethanol and 7 ml of acetonitrile under vigorous stirring. After the addition of 0.2 ml of ammonia aqueous solution, 0.3 ml of TBOT in 3 ml of ethanol and 1 ml of acetonitrile was injected into the mixture. After stirring for 3 hours, the particles were centrifuged and washed with water and dried in an oven at 80°C for 6 hours.

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