GO was synthesized using the Staudenmaier method and developed by other authors (40). Briefly, 5.0 g of graphite was added to a mixture solution containing 87.5 ml of H2SO4 (98%) and 45 ml of fuming HNO3 in an ice-water bath. KClO3 (55 g) was slowly added into the mixture (>15 min). Because of the release of chlorine dioxide gas, all procedures were carefully performed in a fume hood to reduce the risk of explosion. After stirring at room temperature for 96 hours, the mixture was poured into 4.0 liters of water and filtered to obtain the GO.

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